Thursday, November 4, 2010


1.0  Introduction

According to the (2010), readings can be defined as nouns or adjectives. For example, reading which serves the purpose of noun is a process that involves the cognitive aspect of understanding a written language message. While reading as an adjective is more to an act pertaining to the act of reading itself. Both of these definitions are in general context of meaning in our life but it has been a way of improving one’s life especially for children.
The importance of reading for children which has been stated by Damian (2006) suggests the different IQ level for those who love reading in younger age such as they are more creative, they achieve well performance in school and develop good language skills. Unfortunately, we know that reading problem will give bad impression towards ourselves, among our friends or even our family. So what is the reading problem?

2.0  Reading problems

There are many problems regarding to the reading but for this assignment, the focus is narrowed down to the six major problems states by Peter Edwards (1981). The six reading problems are the insufficient sight vocabulary, inadequate visual skill analysis skills, inadequate auditory analysis skills, inability to use context clues, inadequate comprehension skills and the inefficient rates of reading. From the six major reading problems stated above, my option is inadequate comprehension skills. Within this reading problem, pupils should be able to acquire meaning from material they have read also known as decoding. This means after the reading process, pupils should have received new schemata from the print. Then, after this decoding process, pupils should be able to use the information to both convergent and divergent thinking.

There are several signs of disability that we can use in order to detect this problem amongst the pupils listed by Peter Edwards (1981, p.57). These signs include the pupil’s inability to answer factual questions based on the material they have read which means even tough they have read about the prints, they still unable to locate certain important facts or main ideas that should be stress on. In addition, if they are able to locate the important facts or idea related to the material, they will have easy time to answer the factual questions.

Another signs of disability is that the pupils are unable to follow directions in print. This means that the pupils are having problems to understand instructions on how to get to some places. Additionally, if the pupils themselves are having orientation problems it will makes this problem even worse.

Next, the students are unable to follow the sequence of events in material that they read. In this problem, pupils will find it difficult to rearrange a series of events or chronology correctly when they were told to do so.

3.0  The causes of reading problems

There are many possible causes that contribute to the inadequate comprehension skills. The causes are the lack of general reading ability, the difficulty level of the materials used and pupils are not interested in the material. First, we go to the pupils’ lack of general reading ability such as their style of reading and their engagement during the reading process. If they did not practice these skills from early ages, these problems will be difficult to overcome.

The second possible cause is the difficulty level of the materials used. The usage of difficult level material in teaching and learning session will make the pupils suffer in understanding the meaning of the prints they read. The usage of heavy reading text such as journal, research is not suitable for the pupils especially in primary school.

The third cause of this reading problem is about the pupil’s interest. The pupils are not interested in the material. Thus, it will lead to another problem such as lack of motivation and concentration towards the learning process. The uninteresting material can also lead to the discipline problems which affect the other students’ comprehension.

4.0  Ways to overcome the reading problems

Firstly, to overcome the problems in the first causes is the pupils should be exposed to the general reading skills at early ages.  According to the University of Southampton (2008), reading style involve skimming, scanning skills and the detailed reading skills. Furthermore, it is important for pupils to make an active reading process for example underlining and highlighting facts or ideas. Indirectly, this will allow pupils to answer factual questions by using the facts that they have highlighted.

The second way to overcome this problem is from the material uses for the lesson. The material prepared for the lesson must be chosen carefully and it should consider the pupils understanding level. Teacher can use a simple text for a start before using the difficult material progressively. Moreover, use the authentic material and non-authentic material which is related to the pupil’s life and things around them. For example, news papers, magazines and story book. Other than that, teacher should allow the pupils to use thesaurus and dictionary but provide a rule such as use it only when necessary.

The third way to overcome this problem is the preparation of interesting materials and activities for pupils to read. Depending on the students’ favorites, teacher should know what material and what type of activities can attract students’ attention to make they read the material. Make use of their interest and relates it with the material that teacher is going to use in the lesson. For example, we know that a pupil at young age likes to play. With this kind of information teacher can create games related to the reading materials. Furthermore, teacher can give reward for students who can answer factual questions.

5.0 Conclusions

During the effort to complete this task, I find that reading problems affects one’s academic achievement and their life. The problems should be overcome or reduced to improve the quality of live. Through reading, we can gain knowledge and in formations.  For pupils at the young ages, reading should be taught early and parents should play their role and take responsibility so we will produce a greater generation to drive the nation to become the leader of the world knowledge in future.

signs of reading problems : Inadequate comprehension skills

causes of reading problems



Subject                                  : English Language
Year                                       : 5 Cekal
Time                                      : 60 minutes
Number of pupils                   : 28
Theme                                   : World of Knowledge
Topic                                     : The Process of cleaning water
Main skill                                : Reading
Integrated skill                        : Speaking and Writing
Type of reading problem        : Inadequate Comprehension Skills
Focused Disability                  : Unable to follow the sequence of events in material
Sub-skills                                :  2.0 Speaking
                                                            2.6.3 Relate the story to one’s life
    3.0 Reading
3.8.1 Read and understand simple factual texts for main ideas, supporting details
          sequence, and cause and effect.
                                                     4.0 Writing
            4.3. 2 Complete simple instructions, recipes, descriptions, rhymes with the missing   
                       words and simple phrases (with guidance)

Language item                     : Simple Present Tense
Vocabulary                            : pumps, screens, chlorine, improves, filters, reservoir
Previous Knowledge           : Pupils
Learning outcomes                         : By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:
1) Express thoughts and feelings and give opinions on things read, seen, heard and viewed in simple language.   
2) Read and understand simple factual texts for main ideas, supporting
details, sequence, and cause and effect.

3) Give accurate information w hen writing messages, instructions, simple reports, and when filling out forms.           
Moral values                         : Cleanliness
Educational emphasis        : Thinking Skill
1)    Identifying

Teaching Aids                      :     1) Picture card
                                                      2) Whiteboard and marker pen
                                                      3) Worksheets


Induction set
(± 5 minutes)

Picture card
(Refer to appendix A)

1.    Teacher shows a picture card to the pupils

2.    Teacher asks questions to the pupils.
·         What picture is this?
·         Is river important to us?

1.    Pupils look at the picture card shown by the teacher.

2.    Pupils answer teacher’s questions based on the picture card.

1.    To trigger pupils’ prior knowledge.

(15 minutes)


1) pumps
2) screens
3) chlorine
4) improves
5) filters
6) reservoir

1.    Teacher writes a list of   vocabularies on the class whiteboard.

2.    Teacher introduces the vocabularies to the pupils by pronouncing it and explains the meaning.

3.    Teacher asks pupils to read pronounce the vocabularies.

4.    Teacher asks pupils to write down all the vocabulary in their note book.

1.    Pupils look at the listed vocabularies on class whiteboard.

2.    Pupils listen to the teacher’s explanations.

3.    Pupils read and pronounce the vocabularies.

4.    Pupils write down the listed vocabularies in their note books.

1.    To help students to understand the next step in today’s lesson, in other word the reading readiness activity.

While reading
(15 minutes)

Reading handouts
(Refer to Appendix B)

Rearranging pictures and sentences
(Refer to Appendix C and D)

1.    Teacher distributes handouts to the pupils.
2.    Teacher asks pupils to read the given handouts silently by their selves.

3.    Teacher gives the pupils a set of sentence strips and pictures together with the answer sheets.

4.    Teacher asks pupils to cut the pictures and sentences by using the scissors.

5.    Teacher asks pupils to match pictures with the sentences and arrange them correctly based on the handouts that they have read.

6.    Teacher asks the pupils to paste the pictures and sentences on the answer sheets given.

1.    Pupils receive the handouts given by the teacher.

2.    Pupils read the given handouts silently.

3.    Pupils receive the sentence strips and pictures together with the answer sheets.

4.    Pupils match the pictures with the sentences and arrange them correctly according to the handouts that they have read.

5.    Pupils paste the rearrange pictures and sentences on the answer sheets given.

1.    To ensure about pupils’ comprehension of   a detailed event by   identifying its process in correct order.

Post reading
(20 minutes)

Answering Worksheets
(Refer to Appendix E).

1.    Teacher distributes worksheets to the pupils.

2.    Teacher asks pupils to answer the questions on their exercise books.

3.    Teacher discusses the correct answer with the pupils.

4.    Teacher asks the pupils to paste the worksheets in the exercise book and submit its.

1.    Pupils receive the worksheets from teacher.

2.    Pupils answer the questions on the worksheets given.

3.    Pupils discuss the correct answer with the teacher.

4.    Pupils paste the worksheets in the exercise books and submit its to the teacher.

1.    To ensure the pupils’ comprehension level about today’s lesson.

(5 minutes)


1.    Teacher sums up about today’s lesson and inculcates the moral values.

1.    Pupils listen and respond accordingly.
1.    To recall pupils’ memory about today’s lesson.

2.    To help the pupils practice the moral value learned in their life.

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C
Appendix D
Appendix E


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