Tuesday, November 2, 2010



From the Wiktionary, the meanings of mathematics can be view as:

1.    Etymology

From Latin mathēmatica (“mathematics”), from Ancient Greek μαθηματικός (mathematikos), “fond of learning”) from μάθημα (máthema), “knowledge, learning”).

2.    An abstract representational system used in the study of numbers, shapes, structure and change and the relationships between these concepts.
    • 2001, David Salsburg, The Lady Tasting Tea: How Statistics Revolutionized Science in the Twentieth Century, page 8
While from YourDictionary, mathematics is referred as:
math·emat·ics (mat̸h′ə matiks)
1.    The group of sciences (including arithmetic, geometry, algebra, calculus, etc.) dealing with quantities, magnitudes, and forms, and their relationships, attributes, etc., by the use of numbers and symbols
2.    The act or process of using any of these sciences; computation

Free Online Dictionary state the meanings of mathemathic as :
The study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols.

1.    To generate interest in mathematics and provide a solid
foundation for every day life;
2.     To develop computational skills and foster the desire and the
ability to be accurate to a degree relevant to the problem at hand;
3.    To develop the ability to recognize problems and to solve them
with related mathematical knowledge;
4. To develop precise, logical and abstract thinking;
5. To provide necessary mathematical background for further
    education; and
6.  To stimulate and encourage creativity.


Free Online Dictionary state the meanings of problem as :
            prob·lem (prblm)


1. A question to be considered, solved, or answered: math problems; the problem of how to arrange transportation.
2. A situation, matter, or person that presents perplexity or difficulty: was having problems breathing; considered the main problem to be his boss. See Usage Note at dilemma.
3. A misgiving, objection, or complaint: I have a problem with his cynicism.

While the problem solving is referred as:
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. Some higher animals, such as apes and cetaceans, have demonstrated more complex problem-solving abilities, including discrimination of abstract stimuli, rule learning, and application of language or language like operations. Humans use not only trial and error but also insight based on an understanding of principles, inductive and deductive reasoning (see deduction; induction; and logic), and divergent or creative thinking (see creativity). Problem-solving abilities and styles may vary considerably by individual.

Thus, teaching and learning process at school has integrated problem in the mathematics lesson and ask the students to find the solution using the various types of problem solving method that they have learn. Indirectly, this method of teaching will teach the student basic principles and knowledges to manage their conflict and crisis in their life.

1.    The aims of the secondary school mathematics curricula as stated in KBSM are:
“The mathematics curriculum for secondary schools aims to develop individuals who are able to think mathematically, and apply mathematical knowledge effectively and responsibly in solving problems and making decisions; and face the challenges in everyday life brought about by the advancement of science and technology”

The objectives of mathematics curriculum for the secondary school as stated in KBSM enables pupils to:

      1.  Understand definitions, concepts, laws, principles, and theorems
related to Number, Shape and Space, and Relationship;
2.     Widen the use of basic operations of addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division related to Number, Shape and Space,
and Relationship;
3.     acquire basic mathematical skills such as:
• making estimation and rounding;
• measuring and constructing;
• collecting and handling data;
• representing and interpreting data;
• recognising and representing relationship mathematically;
• using algorithm and relationship;
• solving problems; and
• making decisions.

4.     communicate mathematically;
5.     apply knowledge and skills of mathematics in solving problems
and making decisions;
6.     relate mathematics with other areas of knowledge;
7.     use suitable technologies in concept building, acquiring skills,
solving problems and exploring the field of mathematics;
8.     acquire mathematical knowledge and develop skills effectively
and use them responsibly;
9.     inculcate a positive attitude towards mathematics; and
10.  appreciate the importance and beauty of mathematics
Lingua Links Library suggested that, “Teaching aids are helpful tools for teaching in a classroom or with individual learner”
So, we know that teaching aids are somewhat we referring as a tool that helps in learning and teaching process.

Among of the importance of teaching aids defined by the Lingua Link Library:
 A teaching aid is a tool used by teachers, facilitators or tutors to:-
1.    Help learners improve reading and other skills
2.    illustrate or reinforce a skill, fact, or idea, and
3.    Relieve anxiety, fears, or boredom, since many teaching aids are like games.
Other than that, there are teaching aids that helps student in learning process at home. For example, education nowadays uses computer software for individual studying. This electronic method of teaching is integrated in curriculum.

The usual teaching aids that can be found in schools basically are:-
1.    Chalkboard or whiteboard:

A chalkboard or whiteboard will help teacher’s demonstration and instruction. The best recommendation, if the teachers need to decide between the two would be the whiteboard. Because they are cleaner than chalkboards by far.

2.    Pointer:

This wand-like or ruler-like supply for teachers has many purposes. A pointer can help you with pointing out certain areas like cities, rivers etc. it also very useful to points on large scale graphics such as classroom maps, on overhead projectors and on your whiteboard or chalkboard.

3.    Classroom maps:

Using classroom maps is one of a great teaching aid. Often textbooks will have maps in them, but they will be smaller and harder for the students to read. Sometimes, when the teacher asks the student to look at a map in a book and ask them to find a certain area, however not all the student will be able to find it right away and so they will miss out on the lesson while searching. Very seldom will a student raise his or her hand to ask where on the map the class is looking, either out of shyness or embarrassment.

4.    Overhead projector:

To have an overhead projector for the classroom is a wonderful teaching aid, teacher can even use overhead projectors as a substitute for large, hanging classroom maps. The maps can come in eight and a half by eleven or eight by ten sizes that can be projected into much, much larger maps onto your whiteboard or onto a white canvas in the front of the room. These maps can often be drawn on by an erasable marker (the same you would use for a whiteboard). Thus, there would be no need to use a pointer or to have all those huge roll-up maps to deal with.

5.    Computers

If it is within the budget of your school or learning institution, to have computers in the classroom or even just in a computer lab somewhere in the school is one of the best types of teaching aids you can offer your students. Technology is growing every day, so the more student learn about the basics or even excel in school-related educational software programs is almost a necessity these days.

6.    Flash cards

Flash cards are useful for drilling new letters, syllables, words, and other information. They are normally used in a classroom, but can also be used more informally. Flash cards can be made from:-
    • Index cards
    • Cover or card stock, or
Other heavy paper.  


Class : 5 Cempaka
Date : 30 August 2009, Thursday
Time : 8.00 a.m – 8.30 a.m
Number of Student : 6 Students
Subject : Mathematic
Topic : Same Set
Theme : Fruits
Previous Knowledge : 1. Students eat fruits in daily life.
                                        2. Students have seen a lot type of fruits.
Learning Objectives : Students should be able to make a differentiation of an object        base on colour, size and shape
Learning Outcomes : By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to :-
1.    Identify object from their size, shape and colour
2.    Regroups same object from their size, shape and colour
3.    Discriminate non-similar object in a group based on their size, shape and colour.
Moral Values : Obedient, Effort
Teaching aids : Flash Cards, Pictures Card, Pictures Chart


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